**About the Thermodynamic Labyrinth of Modern Cosmology**

**Black Holes, Black Shields, Black Bodies**

by Michael George

This text concerns a thoroughly “black” subject – the problem of the Black Holes. These extreme stellar phenomena are normally considered from the viewpoint of the general theory of relativity contained in Einstein’s interpretation of gravity. This is based on the interpretation by Newton who defined gravity as a rectilinearly “attractive” force. More recently Stephen Hawking tried to link the relativistic theory of gravitation to the Black Body theory, and to this end he presented a new theory of the Black Holes. What about these Black Holes? How cogent is the conventional interpretation of gravitation? What has the Black Body theory have to offer? How sound is the ground on which Hawking’s linkage of gravitation and Black Body theory is standing? Are there any new perspectives with effective approaches? These questions shall be treated in the following pages.

**Schwarzschild Calculates the Schwarzschild Horizon**

In modern understanding Black Holes are seen as “star cadavers”– as extremely condensed concentrations of matter at the irrevocable end of their stellar life cycle. Their surface gravitation is so high that no light is able to leave the surface. That is why a Black Hole is invisible. Supposing there were “naked” Black Holes they could only be detected indirectly – namely by the gravitational effects they have on neighbouring celestial bodies.

There is only a small number of stellar objects that the astronomers suspect to be Black Holes. One of these black stars carries the name Cygnus X-1 and is situated in the Swan constellation. Cygnus X-1 cannot be captured visually, yet it affects its neighbours gravitationally.

In 1916 – the year of his death – the German physicist Karl Schwarzschild (the name means Black Shield) formulated the theoretical foundation for the assumption of the existence of Black Holes. He was one of the first thinkers who were able to orient themselves in the complicated tangle of Einstein’s field equations. He reached a solution that enabled the calculation of the “Black Horizon” of a heavenly body.

In honour of the father of the theory of the Black Hole I take the liberty to award to such a “black horizon” the appropriate name Schwarzschild Horizon.

According to the calculations of this thinker the Earth when compressed to the size of a marble (diameter just under two centimetres), would be a Black Hole. In the normal state – at a distance of 6’370 km from the centre of the Earth – the radiation given off at the Earth’s surface has no expansion problems: The necessary speed to leave the surface of the Earth without falling back again is 11.2 kilometres per second. This speed is called escape velocity.

Since under the conditions of weak gravitation light has a speed of around 300’000 km/s there are no real problems for the spreading of the Earth’s light.

But a dramatic change occurs when we imagine with Mr Schwarzschild the Earth to be so much compressed that the escape velocity at its surface, the Schwarzschild Horizon, would be 300’000 km/s. The escape velocity on the curved surface of the super-heavy Earth-“marble” would be as large as the speed of light itself. The gigantic necessary escape velocity quasi “eats up” the ability of light to disperse.

The Earth would thus be a Black Hole, and its surface would for a Schwarzschild Horizon: Seen from without this horizon would be optically impenetrable, and from “within” not even light could escape since the extreme surface gravitation would not allow it. This black horizon is a event horizon that keeps all happening “within” practically locked in.

Even more: as a rule – i. e. with normal heavenly bodies – every light beam follows a determined time arrow, that points outward from the centre “through the surface”. In a Black Hole of the Schwarzschild type the time arrow, however is reversed: All light (assumed there was light here) must be pulled in the direction of the central singularity and “disappear” there “beyond retrieval”.

While the “future” of any beam of light normally is in a spatial sense far away from its source, the future of all events in a Black Hole must be “held tight”.

Following this logic the future of an observer coming too close to the Schwarzschild Horizon would be irrevocably sealed: He is not able to escape the gravitation vortex, loses his physical identity at the event horizon, is “dematerialised” and absorbed by the Black Hole.

**A Black Hole – the End of a Star’s Career?**

Ever since Newton gravitation is generally regarded as “force of attraction” whose force arrow points rectilinearly to the centre. That is why cosmologists assume that in the course of cosmic history “local” compactions occurred from which galaxies, solar systems and planets were formed that in the end will all share the fate of a Black Hole. The “motor” of these relentless local compression events is always gravitation.

Why then does our Sun not continuously compact further? The answer of astrophysics: At a certain degree of compression and corresponding high temperatures the burning of hydrogen ignited in the central area of the Sun about five billion years ago: A gigantic nuclear fusion process started and the radiation pressure of the thermonuclear fire has been counteracting gravitation ever since. The Sun is thus in equilibrium between radiation pressure directed outward and the “attractive force” directed inward – and this for billion years more.

One faraway day, however, the solar supply of hydrogen will be depleted. Modern theory maintains that the Sun then will expand for a short time to become a red giant, maybe casting of its outer gaseous mantle explosively and the central radiation pressure will diminish. Then the gravitation pressure will predominate, and the Sun must compact further.

At one stage it will have shrunken to a White Dwarf with a diameter of 14 kilometres. Should it reach a size of only around eight kilometres, it may be called a neutron star. The electronic “shells” of the atoms broke up due to the enormous gravitation pressure, and the atomic nuclei are now packed very closely in their “naked” form.

Once the Sun would have reached a diameter of a mere six kilometres, its surface would correspond to the **Schwarzschild Horizon** of a Black Hole – it would become invisible.

The state of “matter” within a Black Hole can then no longer be described. For even the neutrons as “naked” nuclear elements must now be “squeezed together” – they can no longer be called neutrons. How energy “presents itself” within a Black Hole is graspable neither with the quantum theory nor with the general relativity theory.

With the problem of the Black Holes we reach the limits of traditional physical theories. Matter can no longer be unequivocally defined; here it is subject to extreme “borderline” or even “transformation conditions”. A Black Hole forms a singularity, and all conventional concepts of time, space and matter fail.

A relativistic clock on the black surface must give up its physical existence; every thinkable unit of time must appear here “infinitely expanded”. Also “inside” of a Black Hole one can no longer speak of “space” because the neutrons have no “distance” to each other und thus also no “individual” existence anymore. Any “here” and “elsewhere” between which reciprocity happens are no longer possible. This is the bane of the *singularity*.

**Elsewhere, Singularity and Entropic Time Arrow**

It is obvious that any theory based on the principle of elsewhere tries to avoid or circumvent such indescribable states. Where no interactions take place, where one quantity can no longer be compared to another, theories must capitulate, for without interactions they lack the terms.

Thus we find in the extreme case of the Black Hole the “last reason” why Albert Einstein aimed to do away with the central point: It was an attempt to eschew the singularities.

And so it will not astonish that the quantum theory – that also rests on the principle of elsewhere, the principle of the interactions – is also looking for possibilities to maintain the singularity taboo. As far as Black Holes are understood as products of material compaction, the problem of the infinite density of matter is lurking.

As on the other hand the traditional explanation of gravitation forces a discussion of the black-hole compression, the prize question is: Where is the resort by which the “irrevocable” singularities may be avoided?

Some theoreticians imagine the Einstein-Rosen Bridges or Worm Holes to be ways out of this historical blind alley. These are quasi “transformation paths” at whose “other end” the Black Hole appears as a White Hole with the tendency to expand.

If we set aside for a moment the model of wormholes, something quite unsatisfactory adheres to the tendency of compaction of all heavenly systems to become Black Holes. Its time arrow points, as previously shown, inwards, towards the centre. The general tendency of the Universe, however, is generally believed to be “space expansion”. Inherent in this is the tendency of deconcentration, and the general time arrow, the direction of cosmic development, points outwards, away from the centre.

We can call this one-way set-up of all basic events the Entropic Principle. When the Universe expands, the energy density, temperature and gravitation, and entropy (the measure of differentiation or “disorder”) are on average increasing.

In suns or even galaxies that compact by contracting, the entropy, the density, the temperature and the “internal” gravitation level must rise.

If the fate of all suns and all galaxies means they are subject to compaction and must finally end in a Black hole, so cannot avoid to assume a time arrow for all great heavenly systems that run counter the universal time arrow: Generally the distances increase (space is expanding), density, temperature and gravitation sink; but in detail, the distances shrink and density, temperature and gravitation rise.

This blatant contradiction of two opposing entropic or thermodynamic time arrows within a single cosmic model did not allow Stephen Hawking to rest. Hawking’s ideas (above all: “A Short History of Time”) are among the most advanced that among today’s expert have any importance. Hawking addresses a problem that for decennia was considered insoluble – namely to find a theory that connects Einstein’s general relativity theory with quantum theory.

**Hawking’s Black Holes and Their Entropic Double Scissors**

According to Hawking’s consideration Black Holes are not all that black, and they do emit radiation. After Hawking they have the tendency to “evaporate”. Stars may well shrink to a Black Hole. But then their time arrows are reversed: Thy do not compact further inward, but they shrink by radiating their energy via an assumed “tunnel effect” outward until they simply vanish.

With this consideration, it seems, the Black Holes are finally subject to the general time arrow that is determined by increasing entropy. But there is a catch: With Hawking a “large” Black Hole on its path of vaporisation to become a “small” Black Hole passes through a strange career: Is it large, it must have a cold Schwarzschild Horizon, and this must continuously warm up with vaporisation and diminishment.

Since a high temperature is a measure for a low entropy, a low temperature, however, a measure for high entropy, also a large cold black-hole surface must have a high entropy, a small hot black-hole surface a low entropy. A very small Black Hole must then, shortly before it finally vaporises, have a minimal small entropy (= an extremely high surface temperature), despite that it follows the general time arrow follows to growing entropy.

Hawking’s considerations lead to a solution the paradox of the inversed black-hole time arrow by putting a new one in its place: The tendency to decrease of black-hole entropy “confirms” paradoxically the tendency to increase of the total entropy of the cosmos.

There is an added double paradox that concerns the ratio of a large and a small Black Hole to each other and to their surroundings.

The general “universal temperature” today – in the expanses of the gigantic expanded cosmos – lies exactly at 2.7 Kelvin. This is very little above absolute zero. This lies at around minus 273,5° Celsius. Today all over the world one talks of the 3-K radiation.

Every known stellar body has – depending on its energy content – a temperature that is markedly higher. So there is between every heavenly body and its surroundings a temperature gradient that runs from the inside out. Through its radiation the sun gives off heat to the outside.

A large Hawking hole, whose temperature is below 2.7 K, must inversely take up heat from its surroundings. Here it is necessary that the time arrows of the temperature gradient and the radiation are directed inward. A large Hawking hole that is colder than 2.7 K, must constantly swallow matter and energy – heat energy – from its surroundings. On the other hand it must be impossible for such a hole to give off heat through radiation outwards.

Because the inverted thermodynamic time arrow does not allow such a Black Hole to export heat energy in the form of radiation and through this act to shrink.

If we talk of a thermal energy gradient, this is as “one-way” as a waterfall falling into the depths. Therefore in this case we cannot talk of an “interaction”. For our Black Hole is, compared to its surroundings, namely the totality of the cosmic systems, negligibly small. In the sense of Ernst Mach the “thermal counteraction” of the Black Hole lies compared to all “distant masses” at zero.

Such a Hawking hole must be subject to the absurd fate of constantly absorbing heat energy from the surrounding space and with the growing Schwarzschild Horizon become ever colder until it reaches zero Kelvin.

With other words: a black Hawking hole only has a chance to follow the general entropic time arrow when its surface temperature is higher than that of its surroundings.

Only a Hawking hole having a temperature higher than 2.7 K has a thermodynamic (entropic) gradient in reference to its cooler surroundings. It should then itself be subject to the tendency to cool down. But according to Hawking a smaller Black Hole must be the hotter the more it is depleting by shrinking.

**A Black Body – Portal Into the Thermodynamic Labyrinth**

How did Hawking land in this thermodynamic labyrinth? This question is of special interest because Hawking’s intention is the unification of the general relativity and quantum theory.

The Black Event Horizon that we aptly name by the name of its inventor Schwarzschild Horizon is no doubt an achievement of gravitation theory and, as already mentioned, derived from general relativity.

Now, there is another black “thing” in the physics of stars, namely the Black Body. This belongs in the cosmological interpretation scope of quantum theory and is the favourite child of astrophysics. Therefore: When Hawking tried to unite relativity and quantum theory on a cosmological level, he could not avoid connecting the theory of the Black Hole with the theory of the Black Body.

We can imagine a Black Body simply as a black hollow ball whose material must have a certain resistance to heat. The importance of the Black Body theory was deduced from observations in the laboratory where the wavelengths of the radiation of a black box shortened and wandered into the blue spectral range when the box was heated.

The so-called radiation maximum becomes all the more energy-rich the hotter the Black Body is: The area of greatest radiation brightness wanders when heated continuously into the blue spectrum. Inversely a Black Body when cooling must increasingly emit light of a colouration (long waves).

Let us together with Hawking link the phenomenon of the Black Hole with that of the Black body, we come to the following line of thought: A small Black Hole must have a relatively little “mass”, a large Black Hole a relatively large amount. A large Black Hole is therefore “heavier” and must therefore have a stronger surface gravitation.

This effects a gravitational red shift of the radiation. Red-shifted radiation is however the mark of a cool Black Body: On the Schwarzschild Horizon of a large Black Hole the temperatures must be very low (very little above absolute zero).

Correspondingly a small Black Hole with a small Schwarzschild Horizon must have a relatively low surface gravitation. This allows the radiation to escape with short wavelengths. According to the Black Body theory: blue-shifted radiation means high temperatures. QED: Small Black Holes radiate blue, are very hot and possess a low entropy.

The artifice is brilliant, but it remains an artifice. For by what is the surface of a Black Hole according to Karl Schwarzschild characterised? On every Schwarzschild Horizon, of any size, the exact same basic condition must be fulfilled: a gravitation level that swallows light rather than radiates it.

In Schwarzschild’s view the difference between a large and a small Black Hole is only in the reach of the laid-out gravitation field, and not in the gravitation levels of differing heights on their surfaces.

If we examine them closely, the Hawking holes are equipped with properties that exclude them from the circle of the Schwarzschild gravitation monsters. For either an extremely gravitation surface retains radiation with which it qualifies as event horizon of the Schwarzschild type; or the surface releases radiation, and then it is not endowed with the qualities of a Schwarzschild Horizon.

Hawking holes are theoretical constructs and the surface gravitation of which lies strictly below the Schwarzschild threshold.

Anyhow – with the artifice together with the Black Hole and Black Body theories, Hawking as the first quantum theoretician succeeds to “rectify” the time arrows of a relativistic and a Black Body clock. For normally the time arrows of both hypothetic clocks inexorably remain ajar.

A relativistic clock must tick slower in higher gravitation, a Black Body clock however ticks faster at a higher temperature. Two such comparison clocks that tick on the basis of atomic oscillations and in the earth-bound laboratory run at the same speed, must experience a time yaw on the “yellow horizon” on the surface of the sun.

Here gravitation measures 28 g – that is by factor 28 higher than the 1g on the surface of the Earth – and the relativistic clock must tick slower than on Earth. At the same time the temperature rise to an estimated 6000 Kelvin, therefore a black clock must run faster here than in the Earth-bound laboratory where the temperature lies by only around 300 Kelvin (around 25° Celsius).

This time yaw, as harmless and quaint it might appear at first glance, is one of the fundamental problems in modern physics. Hawking’s artifice cannot make this time yaw disappear, but the yaw gap is closed as far as the theory of the Hawking holes are concerned.

This is how it works: On the surface of a large hole two such hypothetical clocks must together run slowly; the relativistic clock is hereby following the high gravitation, the black clock follows the low temperature. On the surface of small hole both clocks must together tick fast, because the gravitation is low and the temperature high.

At the end, however, there is again a paradox, and the time yaw returns to its normal state: Is the hot but lowly gravitating small hole finally evaporated, the relativistic clock in the remaining weak gravitation field that is formed by the next-higher but far away centre, must engage its fastest speed, the Black Body clock on the other hand must run very slowly due to the now very low ambient temperature.

**Black Bodies, Gravitation and Thermodynamics**

How come, that all attempts to link the relativistic gravitation theory to the Black Body interpretation always end in paradoxes? This is due to the fact that the theory of the Black Hole comes from gravitation theory, the theory of the Black Body, however, from radiation physics, that in terrestrial laboratories “disregards” gravitation as it belongs to the unswayable basic conditions.

In the relativistic gravitation theory the wavelength of the radiated light depends on the surface gravitation of a stellar body. In the Black Body theory the wavelength of the light depends on the surface temperature.

In astrophysics the Black Body interpretation has asserted itself completely. Every star is treated as a black body. A star radiating blue therefore must have a high surface temperature, one radiating red is considered as relatively cool.

But there are the undisputed gravitative effects that influences the radiation processes: namely the relativistic gravitation red shift that Hawking also acknowledges.

With Hawking the chain of ideas runs like this: Is gravitation high, the light wave is long and red, and therefore the temperature must be low. The Black Body interpretation (red = cool) is here superimposed to the high gravitative state.

Would we inversely attach the gravitation interpretation to a terrestrial Black Body radiating red, we would have to reach the result that the body should be heavier when radiating red and lighter when radiating blue.

The incongruity of the relativistic gravitation theory and the Black Body interpretation shows very clearly when we consult a cosmic sphere model.

Let us imagine a very small cosmic primal sphere with a relativistic imprint. Its surface is the “space”, and all future heavenly systems lie close together. The general gravitation must be extremely high. An Einstein clock must tick very slowly, and the average wavelength of light must appear strongly red-shifted.

With cosmic expansion – the enlargement of the sphere – density and gravitation drop, the typical wavelength must shorten (move into the blue spectral area), and the Einstein clock must tend to tick faster.

Let us look now at our primal sphere as a Black Body. The high density leads to extreme temperatures; the typical wavelength must appear strongly blue-shifted, and a Black Body clock must tick at a dizzying speed.

With cosmic expansion the temperatures must drop, the typical wavelength must move into the red area, and the Black Body clock must slow down its running.

We see: Spectral wandering and clock career move in the Black Body model exactly the other way round as in the gravitation model, and gravitation itself appears not as the operative force – just as in the relativistic model the inclusion of temperature is missing.

The cause for these strange and puzzling incongruities lies in an astonishingly simple fact: A black laboratory body gives only then the results expected by the physicists when the gravitation level on which the Black Body is observed, remains identical, but the temperature level is raised through heating – i. e. through the induction of energy.

If from this we draw the conclusion that only the temperature level, but not the gravitation level influences the wavelength of the light, one would perceive a star like the sun simply as a hot Black Body whose surface gravitation is negligible.

But in that case the fact must be disregarded that the temperature at the surface of the sun is not produced by the input of external energy, but is one of the natural properties of the sun.

If one considers this fact, one must deduce that the temperature of the sun’s surface and its corresponding gravitation level belong together, as do the relatively cool Earth surface and its relatively low gravitation level.

Let us now disregard the question of technical feasibility, we can produce the effect of the blue shift of a Black Body on the surface of the sun only when we heat it, if we heat it clearly above its ambient temperature – if we alter the temperature status as in the laboratory, but leave the gravitation status unchanged.

Also must a Black Body on the higher gravitative and thermic level of the sun’s surface shrink relatively, show a higher specific density than it would on Earth. A strongly heated laboratory body on Earth, however, possesses the inclination to for expansion.

All objects warmed above the “normal” measure expand under terrestrial conditions. This is a fact and belongs to our secured treasure trove of experience. But the terrestrial experience may not be generalised unchecked. For the cosmos becoming historical fools us and behaves exactly inversely than a heated and expanded laboratory body:

*Thinking backwards in time, the universe is warming while it shrinks!*

*Thinking forwards in time, the universe is cooling while it expands!*

**Gravithermic Model and Central Effect**

Before we come to a final assessment we want to check how the Black Body interpretation fares when it is subjected to a cosmologic acid test. In the very recent past, in the year 1987, astronomers discovered in the Great Magellanic Cloud a cosmic millennium event: the birth of a Supernova.

A supernova phenomenon is seen as the eruption of a superannuated star that sheds its outer plasma shells explosively. The astrophysicists expected such a blow-out of a large star with a cool surface. According to the generally favoured Black Body interpretation such a cool supernova aspirant should be of a red radiation colour.

When one began to compare the telescope images from before and after the Supernova event, one came upon the source of the explosion: It was the super giant Sanduleak 69 202, and in the astronomic registers Sanduleak was listed as a stellar body of a blue colouration. This means nothing more and nothing less than that the blue radiation is the mark of a relatively cool star surface!

The result of the supernova analysis in the Great Magellanic Cloud is a resounding defeat for the Black Body interpretation – a knockdown blow for its cosmologic incompetence that is based on the disregard of gravitation. But it is no wonder the astronomers base themselves on the black body theory. The relativistic gravitation theory is unable to make any propositions about cool or hot stars.

We have already seen: No artifice – not even by the brilliant Stephen Hawking – can deactivate the fundamental time yaw that forms when we act out the gravitation model of the relativity theory and the temperature model of the Black Body interpretation at the ell of the time arrow of cosmic expansion.

A unification of both theories is equally impossible as it is to go to the right and to the left at the same time. As pressing as the necessity to bring gravitation and thermodynamics together might seem – neither the relativistic nor the black body approach is able to solve this problem.

We have already shown that in the relativistic gravitation theory the wavelength of the radiated light depends on the surface gravitation of a stellar body, in the black body theory however on the surface temperature.

Hereby it is conspicuous that the black body theory declares the temperature to the pivotal point, but the gravitation neglects, while the general relativity theory guards gravitation as its core item, but disregards temperature.

**This is the dilemma of modern cosmology. Is there a solution in sight?**

Let us consult for a third time our cosmic sphere model. Consider first our primal sphere and envision its fundamental properties.

The complete cosmic energy is assembled in “closest proximity”. Thus energy density, temperature and gravitation must be enormously high. In expansion the interspaces grow, the energy density must drop, the temperature must drop – and so must the gravitation. At the same time sinking gravitation – that is accompanied by falling temperature – the average wavelength will shorten and move into the blue range.

An Einstein clock must tend to run faster, while the black clock is out of the race, since the Black Body interpretation has sufficiently proved its cosmologic incompetence.

The gravitative-thermic colour attribution blue = cool and red = hot is confirmed by the following observation facts:

1. The radiation from the hot and highly gravitative centre of our galaxy is clearly red-shifted. In the realm of radio waves – a spectral field with relatively long waves – the light emitted by Sagittarius A has the highest radiation density

2. In the areas of our galaxy near to its centre – the areas of relatively high gravitation and temperature – the number of suns radiating red predominate. In the areas away from the centre, the outer arms of our galactic system, the areas of relatively low gravitation and temperature – there are predominantly stars radiating blue. This is true for all observed galaxies

3. The sun, the centre of our rotating system, is distinguished by two interconnected attributes: a) With a mass ration of 1000:1 to the rest of the system it represents the absolute gravitative superiority; b) it possesses with around 6.000 Kelvin the highest of all surface temperatures in the system. The central sun represents the absolutely overpowering energy summit of the system that is marked equally by high gravitation and thermic Levels

The observation of natural phenomena fosters the notion to identify red radiation of a relatively high density as the mark of a high gravitative and thermic level.

This model I name the Gravithermic Model since here gravitation and temperature do not form a yaw, but follow together an entropic time arrow. The gravithermic model is closely connected to the Central Effect Principle that links the energy of gravitation with thermodynamics. Consequently the Central Effect Principle leads to a new interpretation of gravitation.

Gravitation appears here not as a rectilinear attracting force, but as a vortex field, in which the satellites are embedded and by which, in the sense of Johannes Kepler, they are “led” around the centre.

The centre represents the always prepotent energy peaks of a rotating system, in which a minimum of 99,9 per cent of the total gravitative and thermic energy is concentrated. Here, in the centre of our and therefore also in the centres of all other galaxies there are those gravithermic peak zones that compensate the generally deplored “mass deficit”.

It follows from the Central Effect Principle that the centre of our galaxy is dominated by a gigantic Black Hole that is, however, hidden by immense whirling plasma layers. If our galaxy comprises around 300 milliards stars, then the energy concentrated at its centre is higher by a factor of at least 1000 that the energy that all the satellites together can muster.

*The energy in the centre of our galaxy corresponds therefore to a minimum of 300 billion sun masses.*

The extremely hot Black Central Pole attracts the satellites not in a rectilinear fashion, but in a whirling rotation displays a pulling vortex field whose speed of rotation and pulling force is outwardly depleting – and this in exactly that measure that Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton had formulated.

In this gravitative vortex field there is no “centrifugal force”, and Newton’s Third Law, the Law of Motion (force F = counter force -F’) can be neglected. Centrifugal force appears only when a satellite is accelerated above the measure of the natural pulling force – when its natural “orbital speed” is raised by the effects of external forces.

The gravitative vortex field expands as does the complete cosmos, the time career of every satellite proceeds spirally and the black central pole must exert itself with the increasing expansion.

While the galaxy expands, the Black Hole in the centre must shrink and its surface must continuously diminish. At the same time the gravitation level and the temperature on the black surface remain unchanged, but with its “withdrawal” the “pulling” force of the centre abates, and thus also the average gravitation and temperature of the successively growing und slowing rotating system.

During this whole process the central pole in the equatorial area continuously releases satellites, whose years in the course of their spiral career keep getting longer.

We have to deal here in a literal sense with a process of unwinding.

**The black central pole of our galaxy is a source of matter.**

In the gravithermic model Black Holes do not represent the historic “terminal” of the cosmic and galactic career, but the primal source of all expansive development. Since here the black central source is whirlingly spent, it follows rectified the general entropic gradient.

The thermodynamic and the gravitative tendency for a gradient are running synchronously and are spatially as well as historically always rectified: The gravithermic time arrow is pointing from the centre out – but admittedly is not rectilinear, but spiral.

What implication come from the central effect principle, when we apply it to cosmologic phenomena I have shown with the presented examples. But also for nuclear physics, for the physics of the smallest, the model delivers windows that can offer remarkable vistas on the way to a unified field theory (see: “Gravitation Metrics and Hydrogen Atom”).

The central effect principle delivers a unified model for the largest as for the smallest. It is closely related to the Hermetic Principle of ancient Egypt as well as the Teachings of Tao of ancient China. And it is equally related to the modern Holographic Principle.

And these principles say:

The structure of the smallest corresponds to the structure of the largest. Or: The structure of a part corresponds to the structure of the whole.

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